What is a Control Valve, and How Does It Work in Industrial Processes?

What Is A Control Valve?

What is a control valve? If you want to know what a control valve is and how it works, read all the information below. But to give you a little idea of a control valve, imagine a massive industrial complex humming with activity, from churning chemical reactors to steam-belching turbines. 

Amidst this orchestrated chaos, there exists a silent hero that ensures precision, efficiency, and safety – the control valve. These unassuming devices, often overlooked by the untrained eye, wield immense power in regulating the flow of fluids within industrial systems. 

In this article, we will uncover the secrets of control valves and learn how valves regulate complex fluid movements in industrial processes. To truly understand the importance of control valves, we must first explore the essence of what a control valve is.

What is a Control Valve?

Like a traffic cop, a control valve is a control device used to manage and direct the flow of fluids in industrial processes. It’s a crucial device that manages the flow of liquids, gases, or steam within pipelines and systems. Just as a traffic cop regulates the movement of vehicles to ensure smooth traffic flow, a control valve regulates the flow of fluids to maintain specific conditions, like the right amount of flow, pressure, or temperature.

Imagine a water pipe supplying water to a factory. Without a control valve, the water would gush out uncontrollably, causing chaos. But when a control valve is in place, it acts like a gatekeeper. It can open or close to allow just the right amount of water to pass through, ensuring the factory gets the water it needs without flooding or shortages.

These valves come in various shapes and sizes, each tailored to specific industrial needs. Some look like globes, while others have rotating parts. They have components like actuators (the muscle that moves the valve), valve bodies (the outer casing), and trim (the inner bits that control the flow). 

Together, these components work harmoniously to manage the flow of fluids, making control valves indispensable in industries such as petrochemicals, power generation, and water treatment.

Read more: Understanding Different Types of Valves for Engineers

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Operation of Control Valves

The process control industry typically uses control valves as the final control element. Usually, automatic control valves can be opened or closed by hydraulic, electrical, or pneumatic actuators. When a modulating valve can be adjusted to any position between fully open and fully closed, valve positioners are commonly used to guarantee the valve reaches the desired degree of opening.

The popularity of air-actuated valves comes from their simplicity because they are solely powered by compressed air. This is in contrast to electrically-operated valves, which require additional wiring and switch gear, and hydraulically-actuated valves, which operate on return lines and high-pressure fluid supply.

Control signals for pneumatic systems commonly utilize a pressure range of 3 to 15 psi (0.2 to 1.0 bar) or on a 4-20mA electrical signal in industry settings and 0-10V signals in HVAC systems. Currently, electrical control often incorporates an intelligent communication signal that can be superimposed onto the 4-20mA control signal, which allows the controller to monitor and relay information about position and valve health back to the controller.

Types of Control Valves

Control valves come in various types, each with its unique design and purpose. Let’s explore some of the most common types and understand what makes them distinct.

1. Gate Valves

Gate valves are like sturdy barriers within pipelines. They have a flat or wedge-shaped gate that raises or lowers to control the flow of fluids. These valves are excellent for on-off applications, which allow the flow to be fully open or closed without much in-between. It can also be added with an actuator and positioner device to control the flow of fluids accurately.

2. Globe Valves

Globe valves have a distinctive globe-like body shape. They’re known for their precise control capabilities. A movable plug or disc with linear motion inside the valve body regulates flow by moving up and down. Globe valves are often used in industries where accurate control of flow rate and pressure is essential, they are most suitable and widely used for throttling and controlling fluid flow.

3. Check Valves

Check valves are like one-way doors for fluids. They allow flow in only one direction to prevent backflow by raising the disc with the pressure of the fluid, or they interrupt the flow in the reverse direction by automatically lowering a disc. You’ll find them in systems where it’s crucial to prevent reverse flow, such as plumbing systems to keep fluid moving in one direction.

4. Diaphragm Valves

Diaphragm valves use a flexible diaphragm to control the flow of fluid. When the diaphragm flexes, it blocks with a solid seat or allows fluid to pass through. These valves are excellent for applications where the fluid should not come into contact with the valve components.

5. Ball Valves

Ball valves have a ball-shaped type disc with a hole in the middle. When the ball area is rotated 90 degrees, it either allows or blocks fluid flow. They’re quick to operate and are often used when a fast on-off operation is required. As a quarter-turn shut-off or isolation valve, which can control the flow of fluid and is held into the valve body by identical seat seals.

6. Butterfly Valves

Butterfly valves feature a flat, circular solid disc that rotates to control flow. They are lightweight and work well for large-flow applications. You’ll often find them in industries like water treatment and HVAC systems.

7. Plug Valves

Plug valves use a cylindrical or tapered plug to control flow. These valves are suitable for handling slurries and corrosive fluids. They offer good shutoff capabilities and are often used in chemical and petrochemical industries.

8. Relief Valves

Relief valves are all about safety. They automatically manage to open when pressure exceeds a preset limit, releasing excess pressure to protect equipment and systems from damage or explosion. You’ll find them in various applications where pressure control is critical.

Read more: Exploring Types of Control Valves for Various Applications

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Components for Control Valves

Control valves consist of several vital components that regulate fluid flow precisely. Let’s delve into the function of each component below.

1. Body or Shell

The body or shell of a control valve is its outer casing. It provides structural integrity and houses all the internal components. The body’s design varies according to the valve type and the application’s requirements. It must be sturdy enough to withstand the pressures and temperatures of the fluid it controls.

2. Bonnet

The bonnet is a cover that attaches to the top of the valve body. It serves as a secondary seal and allows access to the internal parts of the valve, such as the stem and trim. In some designs, it also provides thermal insulation to protect the operator from extreme temperatures.

3. Trim

The trim of a control valve is the set of internal components responsible for regulating fluid flow. It includes the valve plug, seat, and other parts that come into contact with the fluid. The trim design is crucial because it determines how effectively the valve controls flow and pressure.

4. Stem

The stem is a slender rod that connects the actuator to the valve plug or disc. When the actuator moves the stem, it raises or lowers the plug, allowing the valve to control the fluid flow. The stem must be durable and resistant to corrosion to ensure reliable performance.

5. Yoke and Yoke Nut

The yoke and yoke nut provide support and guidance for the stem. They are essential for maintaining the alignment and stability of the stem during operation. The yoke nut is threaded onto the stem and can be adjusted to set the valve’s maximum and minimum positions.

6. Actuator

The actuator is the powerhouse of the control valve. It translates the control signal into physical movement, causing the valve to open, close, or modulate. There are various actuators, including pneumatic, electric, hydraulic, and manual actuators, each suited for specific applications.

7. Packing

Packing is a sealing arrangement around the valve stem to prevent fluid leakage from the bonnet area. It ensures the valve remains tight and leak-free, even under high-pressure conditions. The type of packing used can vary depending on the valve’s application and the fluid it handles.

With all of the explanations given above, do you fully understand what a control valve is and how it works? A control valve is the conductor of harmony within industrial processes, orchestrating the fluid flow to perfection. 

These unsung heroes ensure pipelines and systems run smoothly, maintaining the precise conditions for safe and efficient operations. 

Control valves play an indispensable role in regulating the flow of chemicals in a petrochemical plant or fine-tuning the steam in a power generation facility. If you’re searching for top-quality control valves that promise unmatched performance and reliability, look no further than Contromatic

Our extensive range includes the Neles Globe Control and Neles Rotary Control valves, meticulously designed to meet your unique industrial needs. Don’t compromise on the heart of your process; visit Contromatic today and discover the control valve solutions that will elevate your operations to the next level.

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  • https://www.linquip.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/linquip.com-Working-Principle-of-Control-Valve-with-Diagram.pdf
  • https://www.linquip.com/blog/control-valve-parts/
  • https://www.emerson.com/documents/automation/control-valve-handbook-en-3661206.pdf
  • https://www.linquip.com/blog/working-principle-of-control-valve/

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